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2016 Jun 312-50 Study Guide Questions:
Q11. Jonathan being a keen administrator has followed all of the best practices he could find on securing his Windows Server. He renamed the Administrator account to a new name that can’t be easily guessed but there remain people who attempt to compromise his newly renamed administrator account. How can a remote attacker decipher the name of the administrator account if it has been renamed?
A. The attacker guessed the new name
B. The attacker used the user2sid program
C. The attacker used to sid2user program
D. The attacker used NMAP with the V option
Explanation: User2sid.exe can retrieve a SID from the SAM (Security Accounts Manager) from the local or a remote machine Sid2user.exe can then be used to retrieve the names of all the user accounts and more. These utilities do not exploit a bug but call the functions LookupAccountName and LookupAccountSid respectively. What is more these can be called against a remote machine without providing logon credentials save those needed for a null session connection.
Q12. Bob waits near a secured door, holding a box. He waits until an employee walks up to the secured door and uses the special card in order to access the restricted area of the target company. Just as the employee opens the door, Bob walks up to the employee (still holding the box) and asks the employee to hold the door open so that he can enter. What is the best way to undermine the social engineering activity of tailgating?
A. issue special cards to access secured doors at the company and provide a one-time only brief description of use of the special card
B. to post a sign that states “no tailgating” next to the special card reader adjacent to the secured door
C. setup a mock video camera next to the special card reader adjacent to the secured door
D. to educate all of the employees of the company on best security practices on a recurring basis
Explanation: Tailgating will not work in small company’s where everyone knows everyone, and neither will it work in very large companies where everyone is required to swipe a card to pass, but it’s a very simple and effective social engineering attack against mid-sized companies where it’s common for one employee not to know everyone. There is two ways of stop this attack either by buying expensive perimeter defense in form of gates that only let on employee pass at every swipe of a card or by educating every employee on a recurring basis.
Q13. You are trying to compromise a Linux Machine and steal the password hashes for cracking with password brute forcing program. Where is the password file kept is Linux?
Explanation: /etc/shadow file stores actual password in encrypted format for user’s account with additional properties related to user password i.e. it stores secure user account information. All fields are separated by a colon (:) symbol. It contains one entry per line for each user listed in /etc/passwd file.
Topic 19, Evading IDS, Firewalls and Honeypots
Study the log given in the exhibit,
Precautionary measures to prevent this attack would include writing firewall rules. Of these firewall rules, which among the following would be appropriate?
A. Disallow UDP 53 in from outside to DNS server
B. Allow UDP 53 in from DNS server to outside
C. Disallow TCP 53 in from secondaries or ISP server to DNS server
D. Block all UDP traffic
Explanation: According to the exhibit, the question is regarding the DNS Zone Transfer. Since Zone Transfers are done with TCP port 53, you should not allow this connect external to you organization.
Renew 312-50 exam answers:
Q14. Data is sent over the network as clear text (unencrypted) when Basic Authentication is configured on Web Servers.
Explanation: Using HTTP basic authentication will result in your password being sent over the internet as clear text. Don't use this technique unless you understand what the ramifications of this are.
Select the best answer.
B. There is no way to get the changed webpage unless you contact someone at the company
Q16. LAN Manager passwords are concatenated to 14 bytes and split in half. The two halves are hashed individually. If the password is 7 characters or less, than the second half of the hash is always:
Explanation: A problem with LM stems from the total lack of salting or cipher block chaining in the hashing process. To hash a password the first 7 bytes of it are transformed into an 8 byte odd parity DES key. This key is used to encrypt the 8 byte string "KGS!@". Same thing happens with the second part of the password. This lack of salting creates two interesting consequences. Obviously this means the password is always stored in the same way, and just begs for a typical lookup table attack. The other consequence is that it is easy to tell if a password is bigger than 7 bytes in size. If not, the last 7 bytes will all be null and will result in a constant DES hash of 0xAAD3B435B51404EE.
Certified 312-50 :
Q17. What is the expected result of the following exploit?
A. Opens up a telnet listener that requires no username or password.
B. Create a FTP server with write permissions enabled.
C. Creates a share called “sasfile” on the target system.
D. Creates an account with a user name of Anonymous and a password of firstname.lastname@example.org.
Explanation: The script being depicted is in perl (both msadc.pl and the script their using as a wrapper) — $port, $your, $user, $pass, $host are variables that hold the port # of a DNS server, an IP, username, and FTP password. $host is set to argument variable 0 (which means the string typed directly after the command). Essentially what happens is it connects to an FTP server and downloads nc.exe (the TCP/IP swiss-army knife — netcat) and uses nc to open a TCP port spawning cmd.exe (cmd.exe is the Win32 DOS shell on NT/2000/2003/XP), cmd.exe when spawned requires NO username or password and has the permissions of the username it is being executed as (probably guest in this instance, although it could be administrator). The #'s in the script means the text following is a comment, notice the last line in particular, if the # was removed the script would spawn a connection to itself, the host system it was running on.
Q18. A Buffer Overflow attack involves:
A. Using a trojan program to direct data traffic to the target host's memory stack
B. Flooding the target network buffers with data traffic to reduce the bandwidth available to legitimate users
C. Using a dictionary to crack password buffers by guessing user names and passwords
D. Poorly written software that allows an attacker to execute arbitrary code on a target system
Explanation: B is a denial of service. By flooding the data buffer in an application with trash you could get access to write in the code segment in the application and that way insert your own code.
Q19. Which type of Nmap scan is the most reliable, but also the most visible, and likely to be picked up by and IDS?
A. SYN scan
B. ACK scan
C. RST scan
D. Connect scan
E. FIN scan
Explanation: The TCP full connect (-sT) scan is the most reliable.
Q20. Which one of the following attacks will pass through a network layer intrusion detection system undetected?
A. A teardrop attack
B. A SYN flood attack
C. A DNS spoofing attack
D. A test.cgi attack
Explanation: Because a network-based IDS reviews packets and headers, it can also detect denial of service (DoS) attacks
Not A or B:
The following sections discuss some of the possible DoS attacks available.
Smurf Fraggle SYN Flood Teardrop DNS DoS Attacks”