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2017 Apr 400-101 Study Guide Questions:

Q231. Refer to the exhibit. 

All of the routers on this network are running RIP. If you edit the R3 RIP process configuration to reduce the number of hops from R3 to R1, which statement about the configuration change is true? 

A. Configuring no passive-interface for GigabitEthernet0/0 in the R3 RIP process reduces the number of hops to R1 by 2. 

B. Configuring no passive-interface for GigabitEthernet0/0 in the R3 RIP process reduces the number of hops to R1 by 1. 

C. Configuring no passive-interface for GigabitEthernet0/1 in the R3 RIP process reduces the number of hops to R1 by 3. 

D. Configuring no passive-interface for GigabitEthernet0/1 in the R3 RIP process reduces the number of hops to R1 by 1. 

Answer: A 

Explanation: 

By changing the link from R3 to R2 to not be passive, traffic can then take the direct route from R3-R2-R1 instead of the longer path of R3-R6-R5-R4-R1, resulting in two less hops. 

Q232. Which three statements about RIP timers are true? (Choose three.) 

A. The default update timer is 30 seconds. 

B. The default invalid timer is 180 seconds. 

C. The default holddown timer is 180 seconds. 

D. The default flush timer is 60 seconds. 

E. The default scan timer is 60 seconds. 

F. The default hello timer is 5 seconds. 

Answer: A,B,C 

Explanation: 

The routing information protocol uses the following timers as part of its operation: 

Update Timer 

Invalid Timer 

Flush Timer 

Holddown Timer 

Update Timer 

The update timer controls the interval between two gratuitous Response Message. By default the value is 30 seconds. The response message is broadcast to all its RIP enabled interface. 

Invalid Timer 

The invalid timer specifies how long a routing entry can be in the routing table without being updated. This is also called as expiration Timer. By default, the value is 180 seconds. After the timer expires the hop count of the routing entry will be set to 16, marking the destination as unreachable. 

Flush Timer 

The flush timer controls the time between the route is invalidated or marked as unreachable and removal of entry from the routing table. By default the value is 240 seconds. This is 60 seconds longer than Invalid timer. So for 60 seconds the router will be advertising about this unreachable route to all its neighbors. This timer must be set to a higher value than the invalid timer. 

Hold-down Timer 

The hold-down timer is started per route entry, when the hop count is changing from lower value to higher value. This allows the route to get stabilized. During this time no update can be done to that routing entry. This is not part of the RFC 1058. This is Cisco's implementation. The default value of this timer is 180 seconds. 

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Routing_Information_Protocol#Timers 

Q233. Which component of MPLS architecture uses protocols such as the label distribution protocol and tag distribution protocol to exchange labels? 

A. control plane 

B. data plane 

C. forwarding plane 

D. routing plane 

Answer: A 

400-101 test question

Abreast of the times 400-101 rapidshare:

Q234. Which two options are interface requirements for turbo flooding? (Choose two.) 

A. The interface is Ethernet. 

B. The interface is configured for ARPA encapsulation. 

C. The interface is PPP. 

D. The interface is configured for GRE encapsulation. 

E. The interface is configured for 802.1Q encapsulation. 

Answer: A,B 

Explanation: 

In the switch, the majority of packets are forwarded in hardware; most packets do not go through the switch CPU. For those packets that do go to the CPU, you can speed up spanning tree-based UDP flooding by a factor of about four to five times by using turbo-flooding. This feature is supported over Ethernet interfaces configured for ARPA encapsulation. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/metro/me3400/software/release/12-2_50_se/configuration/guide/scg/swiprout.html 

Q235. Which three events can cause a control plane to become overwhelmed? (Choose three.) 

A. a worm attack 

B. processing a stream of jumbo packets 

C. a microburst 

D. a configuration error 

E. a reconvergence failure 

F. a device-generated FTP session 

Answer: A,D,E 

Q236. DRAG DROP 

Drag and drop the multiprotocol BGP feature on the left to the corresponding description on the right. 

Answer: 

400-101 question

Pinpoint 400-101 paper:

Q237. Which two loop-prevention mechanisms are implemented in BGP? (Choose two.) 

A. A route with its own AS in the AS_PATH is dropped automatically if the route reenters its own AS. 

B. A route with its own cluster ID in the CLUSTER_LIST is dropped automatically when the route reenters its own AS. 

C. The command bgp allowas-in enables a route with its own AS_PATH to be dropped when it reenters its own AS. 

D. The command bgp bestpath as-path ignore enables the strict checking of AS_PATH so that they drop routes with their own AS in the AS_PATH. 

E. The command bgp bestpath med missing-as-worst assigns the smallest possible MED, which directly prevents a loop. 

Answer: A,B 

Explanation: 

When dealing with the possibility of routing updates making their way back into an AS, BGP relies on the information in the AS_path for loop detection. An update that tries to make its way back into the AS it was originated from will be dropped by the border router. With the introduction of route reflectors, there is a potential for having routing loops within an AS. A routing update that leaves a cluster might find its way back inside the cluster. Loops inside the AS cannot be detected by the traditional AS_path approach because the routing updates have not left the AS yet. BGP offers two extra measures for loop avoidance inside an AS when route reflectors are configured. 

Using an Originator ID 

The originator ID is a 4-byte, optional, nontransitive BGP attribute (type code 9) that is created by the route reflector. This attribute carries the router ID of the originator of the route in the local AS. If, because of poor configuration, the update comes back to the originator, the originator ignores it. 

Using a Cluster List 

The cluster list is an optional, nontransitive BGP attribute (type code 10). Each cluster is represented with a cluster ID. 

A cluster list is a sequence of cluster IDs that an update has traversed. When a route reflector sends a route from its clients to nonclients outside the cluster, it appends the local cluster ID to the cluster list. If the route reflector receives an update whose cluster list contains the local cluster ID, the update is ignored. This is basically the same concept as the AS_path list applied between the clusters inside the AS. 

Reference: http://borg.uu3.net/cisco/inter_arch/page11.html 

Q238. On which three options can Cisco PfR base its traffic routing? (Choose three.) 

A. Time of day 

B. An access list with permit or deny statements 

C. Load-balancing requirements 

D. Network performance 

E. User-defined link capacity thresholds 

F. Router IOS version 

Answer: C,D,E 

Explanation: 

Key Advantages of using PfR for Load balancing: 

. Utilization based load-balancing: PfR takes real-time link utilization into account when load balancing the links. This will ensure that a link will not go beyond a certain percentage of its maximum capacity (75% by default). 

. Application Performance based Load Balancing: PfR does not randomly forward traffic through one link or another. It takes application performance requirements into consideration and then forwards the traffic through a link which meets the performance policy requirements. PfR also load balances the link at the same time. 

. Bi-directional Solution: PfR is a bi-directional load balancing solution which influences outbound as well as in-bound traffic. 

. Consolidated Centralized View: PfR offers consolidated and centralized view of the state of all external links in the network. At any given time, the network administrator can see the current link utilization (in kbps and percentage of its capacity), maximum link threshold, and the policies applied to the links in the network. 

Reference: http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/PfR:Solutions:InternetOutboundLoadBalancing 

Q239. What is the most efficient way to confirm whether microbursts of traffic are occurring? 

A. Monitor the output traffic rate using the show interface command. 

B. Monitor the output traffic rate using the show controllers command. 

C. Check the CPU utilization of the router. 

D. Sniff the traffic and plot the packet rate over time. 

Answer: D 

Explanation: 

Micro-bursting is a phenomenon where rapid bursts of data packets are sent in quick succession, leading to periods of full line-rate transmission that can overflow packet buffers of the network stack, both in network endpoints and routers and switches inside the network. In order to troubleshoot microbursts, you need a packet sniffer that can capture traffic over a long period of time and allow you to analyze it in the form of a graph which displays the saturation points (packet rate during microbursts versus total available bandwidth). You can eventually trace it to the source causing the bursts (e.g. stock trading applications). 

Reference: Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 989-994). Kindle Edition. 

Q240. DRAG DROP 

Drag and Drop Cisco PFR adjacency types. 

Answer: 

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