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Q491. Which two statements about the ipv6 ospf authentication command are true? (Choose two.) 

A. The command is required if you implement the IPsec AH header. 

B. The command configures an SPI. 

C. The command is required if you implement the IPsec TLV. 

D. The command can be used in conjunction with the SPI authentication algorithm. 

E. The command must be configured under the OSPFv3 process. 

Answer: A,B 

Explanation: 

OSPFv3 requires the use of IPsec to enable authentication. Crypto images are required to use authentication, because only crypto images include the IPsec API needed for use with OSPFv3. In OSPFv3, authentication fields have been removed from OSPFv3 packet headers. When OSPFv3 runs on IPv6, OSPFv3 requires the IPv6 authentication header (AH) or IPv6 ESP header to ensure integrity, authentication, and confidentiality of routing exchanges. IPv6 AH and ESP extension headers can be used to provide authentication and confidentiality to OSPFv3. To use the IPsec AH, you must enable the ipv6 ospf authentication command. To use the IPsec ESP header, you must enable the ipv6 ospf encryption command. The ESP header may be applied alone or in combination with the AH, and when ESP is used, both encryption and authentication are provided. Security services can be provided between a pair of communicating hosts, between a pair of communicating security gateways, or between a security gateway and a host. To configure IPsec, you configure a security policy, which is a combination of the security policy index (SPI) and the key (the key is used to create and validate the hash value). IPsec for OSPFv3 can be configured on an interface or on an OSPFv3 area. For higher security, you should configure a different policy on each interface configured with IPsec. If you configure IPsec for an OSPFv3 area, the policy is applied to all of the interfaces in that area, except for the interfaces that have IPsec configured directly. Once IPsec is configured for OSPFv3, IPsec is invisible to you. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/iproute_ospf/configuration/15-sy/iro-15-sy-book/ip6-route-ospfv3-auth-ipsec.html 

Q492. Which statement is true about trunking? 

A. Cisco switches that run PVST+ do not transmit BPDUs on nonnative VLANs when using a dot1q trunk. 

B. When removing VLAN 1 from a trunk, management traffic such as CDP is no longer passed in that VLAN. 

C. DTP only supports autonegotiation on 802.1q and does not support autonegotiation for ISL. 

D. DTP is a point-to-point protocol. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Ethernet trunk interfaces support different trunking modes. You can set an interface as trunking or nontrunking or to negotiate trunking with the neighboring interface. To autonegotiate trunking, the interfaces must be in the same VTP domain. Trunk negotiation is managed by the Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP), which is a Point-to-Point Protocol. However, some internetworking devices might forward DTP frames improperly, which could cause misconfigurations. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst3750/software/release/12-2_55_se/configuration/guide/scg3750/swvlan.html 

Q493. DRAG DROP 

Drag and drop the BGP attribute on the left to the correct category on the right. 

Answer: 

Q494. In an STP domain, which two statements are true for a nonroot switch, when it receives a configuration BPDU from the root bridge with the TC bit set? (Choose two.) 

A. It sets the MAC table aging time to max_age + forward_delay time. 

B. It sets the MAC table aging time to forward_delay time. 

C. It recalculates the STP topology upon receiving topology change notification from the root switch. 

D. It receives the topology change BPDU on both forwarding and blocking ports. 

Answer: B,D 

Explanation: 

When the TC bit is received, every bridge is then notified and reduces the aging time to forward_delay (15 seconds by default) for a certain period of time (max_age + forward_delay). It is more beneficial to reduce the aging time instead of clearing the table because currently active hosts, that effectively transmit traffic, are not cleared from the table. Once the root is aware that there has been a topology change event in the network, it starts to send out its configuration BPDUs with the topology change (TC) bit set. These BPDUs are relayed by every bridge in the network with this bit set. As a result all bridges become aware of the topology change situation and it can reduce its aging time to forward_delay. Bridges receive topology change BPDUs on both forwarding and blocking ports. An important point to consider here is that a TCN does not start a STP recalculation. This fear comes from the fact that TCNs are often associated with unstable STP environments; TCNs are a consequence of this, not a cause. The TCN only has an impact on the aging time. It does not change the topology nor create a loop. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/lan-switching/spanning-tree-protocol/12013-17.html#topic1 

Q495. External EIGRP route exchange on routers R1 and R2 was failing because the routers had duplicate router IDs. You changed the eigrp router-id command on R1, but the problem persists. Which additional action must you take to enable the routers to exchange routes? 

A. Change the corresponding loopback address. 

B. Change the router ID on R2. 

C. Reset the EIGRP neighbor relationship. 

D. Clear the EIGRP process. 

Answer:

Q496. DRAG DROP 

Drag and drop each GET VPN feature on the left to the corresponding function it performs on the right. 

Answer: 

Q497. When you configure the ip pmtu command under an L2TPv3 pseudowire class, which two things can happen when a packet exceeds the L2TP path MTU? (Choose two.) 

A. The router drops the packet. 

B. The router always fragments the packet after L2TP/IP encapsulation. 

C. The router drops the packet and sends an ICMP unreachable message back to the sender only if the DF bit is set to 1. 

D. The router always fragments the packet before L2TP/IP encapsulation. 

E. The router fragments the packet after L2TP/IP encapsulation only if the DF bit is set to 0. 

F. The router fragments the packet before L2TP/IP encapsulation only if the DF bit is set to 

0. 

Answer: C,F 

Explanation: 

If you enable the ip pmtu command in the pseudowire class, the L2TPv3 control channel participates in the path MTU discovery. When you enable this feature, the following processing is performed: 

– ICMP unreachable messages sent back to the L2TPv3 router are deciphered and the tunnel MTU is updated accordingly. In order to receive ICMP unreachable messages for fragmentation errors, the DF bit in the tunnel header is set according to the DF bit value received from the CE, or statically if the ip dfbit set option is enabled. The tunnel MTU is periodically reset to the default value based on a periodic timer. 

– ICMP unreachable messages are sent back to the clients on the CE side. ICMP unreachable messages are sent to the CE whenever IP packets arrive on the CE-PE interface and have a packet size greater than the tunnel MTU. A Layer 2 header calculationis performed before the ICMP unreachable message is sent to the CE. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/12_0s/feature/guide/l2tpv325.html 

Q498. DRAG DROP 

Drag and drop the IGMPv2 timer on the left to its default value on the right. 

Answer: 

Q499. Which statement about the feasible distance in EIGRP is true? 

A. It is the maximum metric that should feasibly be considered for installation in the RIB. 

B. It is the minimum metric to reach the destination as stored in the topology table. 

C. It is the metric that is supplied by the best next hop toward the destination. 

D. It is the maximum metric possible based on the maximum hop count that is allowed. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

An EIGRP router advertises each destination it can reach as a route with an attached metric. This metric is called the route's reported distance (the term advertised distance has also been used in older documentation). A successor route for any given destination is chosen as having the lowest computed feasible distance; that is, the lowest sum of reported distance plus the cost to get to the advertising router. By default, an EIGRP router will store only the route with the best (lowest) feasible distance in the routing table (or, multiple routes with equivalent feasible distances). 

Reference: http://packetlife.net/blog/2010/aug/9/eigrp-feasible-successor-routes/ 

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