[Best Quality] RH302 Red Hat question 41-50 (Aug 2017)

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Configure to allow the ssh service only from except

Answer and Explanation:

1. vi /etc/hosts.deny

sshd: 192.168.0. EXCEPT

We can secure the services using tcp_wrappers. There are main two files, /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny.

There will be three stage access checking

-Is access explicitly permitted? Means permitted from /etc/hosts.allow?

– Otherwise, Is access explicitly denied? Means denied from /etc/hosts.deny?

– Otherwise, by default permit access if neither condition matched.

To deny the services we can configure /etc/hosts.deny file using ALL and EXCEPT operation.

Pattern of /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny file is:


In Client list can be either domain name or IP address.


Create the user named eric but eric should not belong to the sysadmin group.

Answer and Explanation:

1. useradd eric

Very tricky question given to you that this user should not belongs to sysadmin group.


One Logical Volume named lv1 is created under vg0. The Initial Size of that Logical Volume is 100MB. Now you required the size 500MB. Make successfully the size of that Logical Volume 500M without losing any data. As well as size should be increased online.

Answer and Explanation:

The LVM system organizes hard disks into Logical Volume (LV) groups. Essentially, physical hard disk partitions (or possibly RAID arrays) are set up in a bunch of equal-sized chunks known as Physical Extents (PE). As there are several other concepts associated with the LVM system, let's start with some basic definitions:

* Physical Volume (PV) is the standard partition that you add to the LVM mix. Normally, a physical volume is a standard primary or logical partition. It can also be a RAID array.

* Physical Extent (PE) is a chunk of disk space. Every PV is divided into a number of equal sized PEs. Every PE in a LV group is the same size. Different LV groups can have different sized PEs.

* Logical Extent (LE) is also a chunk of disk space. Every LE is mapped to a specific PE.

* Logical Volume (LV) is composed of a group of LEs. You can mount a filesystem such as /home and /var on an LV.

* Volume Group (VG) is composed of a group of LVs. It is the organizational group for LVM. Most of the commands that you'll use apply to a specific VG.

1. Verify the size of Logical Volume: lvdisplay /dev/vg0/lv1

2. Verify the Size on mounted directory: df -h or df -h mounted directory name

3. Use : lvextend -L+400M /dev/vg0/lv1

4. resize2fs /dev/vg0/lv1 à to bring extended size online.

5. Again Verify using lvdisplay and df -h command.


Deny login to user15 and user16 on Saturday.

Answer and Explanation:

1. vi /etc/security/time.conf


2. vi /etc/pam.d/login

account required pam_time.so

For Time based authentication, we should configured in /etc/security/time.conf

Syntax of /etc/security/time.conf



is a logic list of PAM service names that the rule applies to.


is a logic list of terminal names that this rule applies to.


is a logic list of users to whom this rule applies.


the format here is a logic list of day/time-range entries the days are specified by a sequence of two character entries, MoTuSa for example is Monday Tuesday and Saturday. Note that repeated days are unset MoMo = no day, and MoWk = all weekdays bar Monday. The two character combinations accepted are

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Wk Wd Al

the last two being week-end days and all 7 days of the week respectively. As a final example, AlFr means all days except Friday.

pam_time modules checks the file /etc/security/time.conf for authentication. So, we should call the pam_time modules in /etc/pam.d/login.


You have a domain in your LAN example.com. Configure to allow login to jack only from station10.example.com.

Answer and Explanation:

1. vi /etc/security/access.conf

-:jack:ALL EXCEPT station10.example.com

2. vi /etc/pam.d/system-auth

account required /lib/security/pam_access.so

/etc/security/access.conf file helps to allow or deny login to users on the basis of origin.

Syntax of /etc/security/access.conf

permission : users : origins

The first field should be a "+" (access granted) or "-" (access denied) character.

The second field should be a list of one or more login names, group names, or ALL (always matches). A pattern of the form user@host is matched when the login name matches the "user" part, and when the "host" part matches the local machine name.

The third field should be a list of one or more tty names (for non-networked logins), host names, domain names (begin with "."), host addresses, internet network numbers (end with "."), ALL (always matches) or LOCAL (matches any string that does not contain a "." character).

The EXCEPT operator makes it possible to write very compact rules


Add a cron schedule to take full backup of /home on every day at 5:30 pm to /dev/st0 device.

Answer and Explanation:

1. vi /var/schedule

30 17 * * * /sbin/dump -0u /dev/st0 /dev/hda7

2. crontab /var/schedule

3. service crond restart

We can add the cron schedule either by specifying the scripts path on /etc/crontab file or by creating on text file on crontab pattern.

cron helps to schedule on recurring events. Pattern of cron is:

Minute Hour Day of Month Month Day of Week Commands

0-59 0-23 1-31 1-12 0-7 where 0 and 7 means Sunday.

Note * means every. To execute the command on every two minutes */2.


You are giving the RHCE exam. Now you should boot your System properly. When you started your System, You got one message that.

INIT Entering runlevel 9

INIT: no more processes left in this runlevel

How will you boot your System properly?

Answer and Explanation:

You should know about the /etc/inittab file, where default runlevel will define. And Much more runlevel specific Scripts are called here.

Actually that problem will occur if you don't specify the default runlevel.

4. Reboot the system

5. Boot the System on single user mode.

Except for a normal boot of Linux, single-user mode is the most commonly used option. This is the system maintenance mode for experienced Linux administrators. It allows you to perform clean backups and restores to any partitions as needed from local hardware. It also allows you to run administration commands, recover or repair password and shadow password files, run filesystem checks, and so forth.

6. vi /etc/inittab and Write


Standard Runlevels in RedHat Enterprise Linux


If any mail coming from outside of the local LAN block all mails.

Answer and Explanation:

Outside the LAN means my133t.org. All host on exam on example.com domain and outside domain means cracker.org.

To block the mail coming from cracker.org

1. vi /etc/mail/access

@my133t.org REJECT

2. service sendmail start | restart

3. chkconfig sendmail on


Add a job on Cron schedule to display Hello World on every two Seconds in terminal 8.

Answer and Explanation:

1. cat >schedule

*/2 * * * * /bin/echo "Hello World" >/dev/tty8

3. crontab schedule

4. Verify using: crontab -l

5. service crond restart

Cron helps to schedule on recurring events. Pattern of Cron is:

Minute Hour Day of Month Month Day of Week Commands

0-59 0-23 1-31 1-12 0-7 where 0 and 7 means Sunday.

Note * means every. To execute the command on every two minutes */2.

To add the scheduled file on cron job: crontab filename

To List the Cron Shedule: crontab -l

To Edit the Schedule: crontab -e

To Remove the Schedule: crontab -r


Configure the web server for www.abc.com associated IP address is by allowing access within your example.com domain.

Answer and Explanation:

1. vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf


ServerName www.abc.com

DocumentRoot /var/www/abc/

<Directory /var/www/abc>

Order Allow, Deny

Allow from .example.com


DirectoryIndex index.html

ServerAdmin webmaster@abc.com

ErrorLog logs/error_abc.logs

CustomLog logs/custom_abc.logs common


2. Create the directory and index page on specified path. (Index page can download from

ftp://server1.example.com at exam time)

Check the SELinux context of index page , should like this:

-rw-r–r– root root system_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t /var/www/html/index.html

If SELinux Context is mismatched, use the restorecon -R /var command

3. service httpd start|restart

4. chkconfig httpd on

Order allow, deny à Allows explicitly allowed clients, denies everyone else; clients matched by both allow and deny are denied.

Order deny, allow à denies explicitly denied clients, allows everyone else, clients matched by both allow and deny are allowed.

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