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Q471. Which circumstance can cause packet loss due to a microburst? 

A. slow convergence 

B. a blocked spanning-tree port 

C. process switching 

D. insufficient buffers 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Micro-bursting is a phenomenon where rapid bursts of data packets are sent in quick succession, leading to periods of full line-rate transmission that can overflow packet buffers of the network stack, both in network endpoints and routers and switches inside the network. 

Symptoms of micro bursts will manifest in the form of ignores and/ or overruns (also shown as accumulated in “input error” counter within show interface output). This is indicative of receive ring and corresponding packet buffer being overwhelmed due to data bursts coming in over extremely short period of time (microseconds). 

Reference: http://ccieordie.com/?tag=micro-burst 

Q472. Which two OSPF LSA types are flooded within the originating area? (Choose two.) 

A. type 1, Router LSA 

B. type 2, Network LSA 

C. type 3, Network Summary LSA 

D. type 4, ASBR Summary LSA 

E. type 6, Group Membership LSA 

F. type 9, Opaque LSA 

Answer: A,B 

Explanation: 

OSPF relies on several types of Link State Advertisements (LSAs) to communicate link state information between neighbors. A brief review of the most applicable LSA types: 

. Type 1 – Represents a router 

. Type 2 – Represents the pseudonode (designated router) for a multiaccess link 

. Type 3 – A network link summary (internal route) 

. Type 4 – Represents an ASBR 

. Type 5 – A route external to the OSPF domain 

. Type 7 – Used in stub areas in place of a type 5 LSA LSA types 1 and 2 are found in all areas, and are never flooded outside of an area. They are only flooded within the area that they originated from. 

Reference: http://packetlife.net/blog/2008/jun/24/ospf-area-types/ 

Q473. Refer to the exhibit. 

R1 is configured as shown. R1 is able to establish a neighbor adjacency only with R2. Which addition must you make to the R1 configuration to allow it to establish an adjacency with R3? 

A. interface gigabitethernet 0/1 

ip address 10.1.0.1 255.255.255.0 

ip ospf network point-to-point 

B. interface gigabitethernet 0/1 

ip address 10.1.0.1 255.255.255.0 

ip ospf 1 area 0 

C. router ospf 1 

network 10.1.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 1 

D. router ospf 1 

area 0 stub 

Answer:

Explanation: 

To enable interfaces and networks with OSPF, the networks need to be specified in the network statement. In the configuration shown, only 10.0.0.0/24 has been enabled, we are missing the network connecting to R3 (10.1.0.0/24). 

Q474. When you migrate a network from PVST+ to rapid-PVST+, which two features become inactive? (Choose two.) 

A. Root guard 

B. Loop guard 

C. UplinkFast 

D. UDLD 

E. BackboneFast 

F. Bridge Assurance 

Answer: C,E 

Explanation: 

It is good to know the UplinkFast and BackboneFast behavior before you start the migration process. 

Here, the Access1 switch runs Cisco IOS. This output is taken before migration to the rapid-PVST+ mode: 

Access1#show spanning-tree vlan 10 

VLAN0010 

Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee 

Root ID Priority 24586 

Address 0015.63f6.b700 

Cost 3019 

Port 107 (FastEthernet3/0/1) 

Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec 

Bridge ID Priority 49162 (priority 49152 sys-id-ext 10) 

Address 000f.f794.3d00 

Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec 

Aging Time 300 

Uplinkfast enabled 

Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type 

Fa3/0/1 Root FWD 3019 128.107 P2p 

Fa3/0/2 Altn BLK 3019 128.108 P2p 

Access1#show spanning-tree summary 

Switch is in pvst mode 

Root bridge for: none 

Extended system ID is enabled 

Portfast Default is disabled 

PortFast BPDU Guard Default is enabled 

Portfast BPDU Filter Default is disabled 

Loopguard Default is disabled 

EtherChannel misconfig guard is enabled 

UplinkFast is enabled 

BackboneFast is enabled 

Configured Pathcost method used is short 

Name Blocking Listening Learning Forwarding STP Active 

VLAN0010 1 0 0 1 2 

VLAN0020 1 0 0 1 2 

2 vlans 2 0 0 2 4 

This output is taken after the mode is changed to rapid-PVST+: 

Access1#show spanning-tree vlan 10 

VLAN0010 

Spanning tree enabled protocol rstp 

Root ID Priority 24586 

Address 0015.63f6.b700 

Cost 3019 

Port 107 (FastEthernet3/0/1) 

Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec 

Bridge ID Priority 49162 (priority 49152 sys-id-ext 10) 

Address 000f.f794.3d00 

Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec 

Aging Time 300 

UplinkFast enabled but inactive in rapid-pvst mode 

Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type 

Fa3/0/1 Root FWD 3019 128.107 P2p 

Fa3/0/2 Altn BLK 3019 128.108 P2p 

Access1#show spanning-tree summary 

Switch is in rapid-pvst mode 

Root bridge for: none 

Extended system ID is enabled 

Portfast Default is disabled 

PortFast BPDU Guard Default is enabled 

Portfast BPDU Filter Default is disabled 

Loopguard Default is disabled 

EtherChannel misconfig guard is enabled 

UplinkFast is enabled but inactive in rapid-pvst mode 

BackboneFast is enabled but inactive in rapid-pvst mode 

Configured Pathcost method used is short 

Name Blocking Listening Learning Forwarding STP Active 

VLAN0010 1 0 0 1 2 

VLAN0020 1 0 0 1 2 

2 vlans 2 0 0 2 4 

You can see in the show spanning-tree summary command output that UplinkFast and BackboneFast are enabled, but are inactive in rapid-PVST mode. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/switches/catalyst-6500-series-switches/72836-rapidpvst-mig-config.html#upback1 

Q475. Refer to the exhibit. 

When the link between RtrB and RtrC goes down, multicast receivers stop receiving traffic from the source for multicast group 229.1.1.1.Which solution will resolve this? 

A. adding a static mroute on RtrB and RtrF 

B. adding a static unicast route on RtrB and RtrF 

C. creating a GRE tunnel between RtrB and RtrD 

D. enabling PIM sparse mode on both ends of the link between RtrB and RtrF 

Answer:

Explanation: 

For multicast traffic to flow, PIM must be enabled on all routers in the path of the multicast stream. 

Q476. Which two options are advantages of NetFlow version 9 over NetFlow version 5? (Choose two.) 

A. NetFlow version 9 adds support for IPv6 headers. 

B. NetFlow version 9 adds support for MPLS labels. 

C. NetFlow version 9 adds support for the Type of Service field. 

D. NetFlow version 9 adds support for ICMP types and codes. 

Answer: A,B 

Explanation: 

NetFlow version 9 includes support for all of these fields that version 5 supports and can optionally include additional information such as Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) labels and IPv6 addresses and ports. 

Q477. Which two statements about the assert process in LAN-based PIM are true? (Choose two.) 

A. If the metrics are the same, the router with the lowest advertised routing protocol metric for that route is elected. 

B. If the metrics are the same, the router with the highest IP address on the LAN is elected. 

C. If the metrics are the same, the router with the highest advertised routing protocol metric for that route is elected. 

D. If the metrics are the same, the router with the lowest IP address on the LAN is elected. 

Answer: A,B 

Q478. Which two statements about the protected ports feature and the private VLAN feature are true? (Choose two.) 

A. The protected ports feature is limited to the local switch. 

B. The protected ports feature can isolate traffic between two "protected" ports on different switches. 

C. The private VLAN feature is limited to the local switch. 

D. The private VLAN feature prevents interhost communication within a VLAN across one or more switches. 

Answer: A,D 

Explanation: 

Protected Ports (PVLAN Edge) In some network environments, there is a requirement for no traffic to be seen or forwarded between host(s) on the same LAN segment, thereby preventing interhost communications. The PVLAN edge feature provisions this isolation by creating a firewall-like barrier, thereby blocking any unicast, broadcast, or multicast traffic among the protected ports on the switch. Note that the significance of the protected port feature is limited to the local switch, and there is no provision in the PVLAN edge feature to isolate traffic between two "protected" ports located on different switches. For this purpose, the PVLAN feature can be used. 

Reference: http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=1181682&seqNum=2 

Q479. What are the two requirements for BGP to install a classful network into the BGP routing table? (Choose two) 

A. The AS contains the entire classfull network. 

B. A classful network statement with a lower administrative distance is in the routing table. 

C. Auto-summary is enabled. 

D. A classful network statement with a classful mask is in the routing table. 

E. Synchronization is enabled. 

F. Synchronization is disabled. 

Answer: C,D 

Q480. Which statement about MSS is true? 

A. It is negotiated between sender and receiver. 

B. It is sent in all TCP packets. 

C. It is 20 bytes lower than MTU by default. 

D. It is sent in SYN packets. 

E. It is 28 bytes lower than MTU by default. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

The maximum segment size (MSS) is a parameter of the Options field of the TCP header that specifies the largest amount of data, specified in octets, that a computer or communications device can receive in a single TCP segment. It does not count the TCP header or the IP header. The IP datagram containing a TCP segment may be self-contained within a single packet, or it may be reconstructed from several fragmented pieces; either way, the MSS limit applies to the total amount of data contained in the final, reconstructed TCP segment. The default TCP Maximum Segment Size is 536. Where a host wishes to set the maximum segment size to a value other than the default, the maximum segment size is specified as a TCP option, initially in the TCP SYN packet during the TCP handshake. The value cannot be changed after the connection is established. 

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximum_segment_size 

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