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Q21. Bob is a Junior Administrator at ABC Company. On One of Linux machine he entered the following firewall rules: 

iptables –t filter –A INPUT -p tcp –dport 23 –j DROP 

Why he entered the above line? 

A. To accept the Telnet connection 

B. To deny the Telnet connection 

C. The accept all connection except telnet connection 

D. None of Above 

Answer: B

Explanation: -t, –table 

This option specifies the packet matching table which the command should operate on. If the kernel is configured with automatic module loading, an attempt will be made to load the appropriate module for that table if it is not already there. The tables are as follows: filter This is the default table, and contains the built-in chains INPUT (for packets coming into the box itself), FORWARD (for packets being routed through the box), and OUTPUT (for locally-generated packets). nat This table is consulted when a packet which is creates a new connection is encountered. It consists of three built-ins: PREROUTING (for altering packets as soon as they come in), OUTPUT (for altering locally-generated packets before routing), and POSTROUTING (for altering packets as they are about to go out). mangle This table is used for specialized packet alteration. It has two built-in chains: PREROUTING (for altering incoming packets before routing) and OUTPUT (for altering locally-generated packets before routing). 

-A, –append 

Append one or more rules to the end of the selected chain. When the source and/or destination names resolve to more than one address, a rule will be added for each possible address combination. -p, –protocol [!] protocol The protocol of the rule or of the packet to check. The specified protocol can be one of tcp, udp, icmp, or all, or it can be a numeric value, representing one of these protocols or a different one. Also a protocol name from /etc/protocols is allowed. A "!" argument before the protocol inverts the test. The number zero is equivalent to all. Protocol all will match with all protocols and is taken as default when this option is omitted. All may not be used in in combination with the check command. –destination-port [!] [port[:port]] Destination port or port range specification. The flag –dport is an alias for this option. -j, –jump target 

This specifies the target of the rule; ie. what to do if the packet matches it. The target can be a user-defined chain (not the one this rule is in), one of the special builtin targets which decide the fate of the packet immediately, or an extension (see EXTENSIONS below). If this option is omitted in a rule, then matching the rule will have no effect on the packet's fate, but the counters on the rule will be incremented. 

Q22. While testing web applications, you attempt to insert the following test script into the search area on the company's web site: 

<script>alert('Testing Testing Testing')</script> 

Afterwards, when you press the search button, a pop up box appears on your screen with the text "Testing Testing Testing". What vulnerability is detected in the web application here? 

A. A hybrid attack 

B. A buffer overflow 

C. Password attacks 

D. Cross Site Scripting 

Answer: D

Explanation: Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications which allow code injection by malicious web users into the web pages viewed by other users. Examples of such code include HTML code and client-side scripts. An exploited cross-site scripting vulnerability can be used by attackers to bypass access controls such as the same origin policy. 

Q23. Exhibit: 

You have captured some packets in Ethereal. You want to view only packets sent from 

10.0.0.22. What filter will you apply? 

A. ip = 10.0.0.22 

B. ip.src == 10.0.0.22 

C. ip.equals 10.0.0.22 

D. ip.address = 10.0.0.22 

Answer:

Explanation: ip.src tells the filter to only show packets with 10.0.0.22 as the source. 

Q24. What is the proper response for a X-MAS scan if the port is closed? 

A. SYN 

B. ACK 

C. FIN 

D. PSH 

E. RST 

F. No response 

Answer:

Explanation: Closed ports respond to a X-MAS scan with a RST. 

Q25. Which of the following are potential attacks on cryptography? (Select 3) 

A. One-Time-Pad Attack 

B. Chosen-Ciphertext Attack 

C. Man-in-the-Middle Attack 

D. Known-Ciphertext Attack 

E. Replay Attack 

Answer: BCE

Explanation: A chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis in which the cryptanalyst chooses a ciphertext and causes it to be decrypted with an unknown key. Specific forms of this attack are sometimes termed "lunchtime" or "midnight" attacks, referring to a scenario in which an attacker gains access to an unattended decryption machine. In cryptography, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack in which an attacker is able to read, insert and modify at will, messages between two parties without either party knowing that the link between them has been compromised. The attacker must be able to observe and intercept messages going between the two victims. A replay attack is a form of network attack in which a valid data transmission is maliciously or fraudulently repeated or delayed. This is carried out either by the originator or by an adversary who intercepts the data and retransmits it, possibly as part of a masquerade attack by IP packet substitution (such as stream cipher attack). 

Q26. You are the chief information officer for your company, a shipping company based out of Oklahoma City. You are responsible for network security throughout the home office and all branch offices. You have implemented numerous layers of security from logical to physical. As part of your procedures, you perform a yearly network assessment which includes vulnerability analysis, internal network scanning, and external penetration tests. Your main concern currently is the server in the DMZ which hosts a number of company websites. To see how the server appears to external users, you log onto a laptop at a Wi-Fi hot spot. Since you already know the IP address of the web server, you create a telnet session to that server and type in the command: 

HEAD /HTTP/1.0 

After typing in this command, you are presented with the following screen: 

What are you trying to do here? 

A. You are attempting to send an html file over port 25 to the web server. 

B. By typing in the HEAD command, you are attempting to create a buffer overflow on the web server. 

C. You are trying to open a remote shell to the web server. 

D. You are trying to grab the banner of the web server. * 

Answer: D

Q27. Leesa is the senior security analyst for a publicly traded company. The IT department recently rolled out an intranet for company use only with information ranging from training, to holiday schedules, to human resources data. Leesa wants to make sure the site is not accessible from outside and she also wants to ensure the site is Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) compliant. Leesa goes to a public library as she wants to do some Google searching to verify whether the company's intranet is accessible from outside and has been indexed by Google. Leesa wants to search for a website title of "intranet" with part of the URL containing the word "intranet" and the words "human resources" somewhere in the webpage. 

What Google search will accomplish this? 

A. related:intranet allinurl:intranet:"human resources" 

B. cache:"human resources" inurl:intranet(SharePoint) 

C. intitle:intranet inurl:intranet+intext:"human resources" 

D. site:"human resources"+intext:intranet intitle:intranet 

Answer: C

Q28. Jess the hacker runs L0phtCrack’s built-in sniffer utility which grabs SMB password hashes and stores them for offline cracking. Once cracked, these passwords can provide easy access to whatever network resources the user account has access to. 

But Jess is not picking up hashed from the network. 

Why? 

A. The network protocol is configured to use SMB Signing. 

B. The physical network wire is on fibre optic cable. 

C. The network protocol is configured to use IPSEC. 

D. L0phtCrack SMB filtering only works through Switches and not Hubs. 

Answer: A

Explanation: To protect against SMB session hijacking, NT supports a cryptographic integrity mechanism, SMB Signing, to prevent active network taps from interjecting themselves into an already established session. 

Q29. What does black box testing mean? 

A. You have full knowledge of the environment 

B. You have no knowledge of the environment 

C. You have partial knowledge of the environment 

Answer: B

Explanation: Black box testing is conducted when you have no knowledge of the environment. It is more time consuming and expensive. 

Q30. Smurf is a simple attack based on IP spoofing and broadcasts. A single packet (such as an ICMP Echo Request) is sent as a directed broadcast to a subnet on the Internet. All the machines on that subnet respond to this broadcast. By spoofing the source IP Address of the packet, all the responses will get sent to the spoofed IP Address. Thus, a hacker can often flood a victim with hundreds of responses for every request the hacker sends out. 

Who are the primary victims of these attacks on the Internet today? 

A. IRC servers are the primary victim to smurf attacks 

B. IDS devices are the primary victim to smurf attacks 

C. Mail Servers are the primary victim to smurf attacks 

D. SPAM filters are the primary victim to surf attacks 

Answer: A

Explanation: IRC servers are the primary victim to smurf attacks. Script-kiddies run programs that scan the Internet looking for "amplifiers" (i.e. subnets that will respond). They compile lists of these amplifiers and exchange them with their friends. Thus, when a victim is flooded with responses, they will appear to come from all over the Internet. On IRCs, hackers will use bots (automated programs) that connect to IRC servers and collect IP addresses. The bots then send the forged packets to the amplifiers to inundate the victim. 

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