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Q41. – (Topic 2)
What OSPF command, when configured, will include all interfaces into area 0?
A. network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0
B. network 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 area 0
C. network 255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0 area 0
D. network all-interfaces area 0
Example 3-1 displays OSPF with a process ID of 1 and places all interfaces configured with
an IP address in area 0. The network command.network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0.dictates that you do not care (255.255.255.255) what the IP address is, but if an IP
address is enabled on any interface, place it in area 0.
Example 3-1.Configuring OSPF in a Single Area
router ospf 1 network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0 Reference: http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=26919&seqNum=3
Q42. – (Topic 2)
What are three characteristics of the OSPF routing protocol? (Choose three.)
A. It converges quickly.
B. OSPF is a classful routing protocol.
C. It uses cost to determine the best route.
D. It uses the DUAL algorithm to determine the best route.
E. OSPF routers send the complete routing table to all directly attached routers.
F. OSPF routers discover neighbors before exchanging routing information.
Open Shortest Path First Reference:
Additional OSPF features include equal-cost, multipath routing, and routing based on upper-layer type-of-service (TOS) requests. TOS-based routing supports those upper-layer protocols that can specify particular types of service. An application, for example, might specify that certain data is urgent. If OSPF has high-priority links at its disposal, these can be used to transport the urgent datagram.
OSPF supports one or more metrics. If only one metric is used, it is considered to be arbitrary, and TOS is not supported. If more than one metric is used, TOS is optionally supported through the use of a separate metric (and, therefore, a separate routing table) for each of the eight combinations created by the three IP TOS bits (the delay, throughput, and reliability bits). For example, if the IP TOS bits specify low delay, low throughput, and high reliability, OSPF calculates routes to all destinations based on this TOS designation. IP subnet masks are included with each advertised destination, enabling variable-length subnet masks. With variable-length subnet masks, an IP network can be broken into many subnets of various sizes. This provides network administrators with extra network-configuration flexibility.
Q43. – (Topic 1)
At which layer of the OSI model is RSTP used to prevent loops?
B. data link
Explanation: RSTP and STP operate on switches and are based on the exchange of Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) between switches. One of the most important fields in BPDUs is the Bridge Priority in which the MAC address is used to elect the Root Bridge , RSTP operates at Layer 2. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094cf a.shtml
Q44. – (Topic 3)
Refer to the exhibit.
A technician pastes the configurations in the exhibit into the two new routers shown. Otherwise, the routers are configured with their default configurations. A ping from Host1 to Host2 fails, but the technician is able to ping the S0/0 interface of R2 from Host1. The configurations of the hosts have been verified as correct. What is the cause of the problem?
A. The serial cable on R1 needs to be replaced.
B. The interfaces on R2 are not configured properly.
C. R1 has no route to the 192.168.1.128 network.
D. The IP addressing scheme has overlapping subnetworks.
E. The ip subnet-zero command must be configured on both routers.
Whenever a node needs to send data to another node on a network, it must first know where to send it. If the node cannot directly connect to the destination node, it has to send it via other nodes along a proper route to the destination node. A remote network is a network that can only be reached by sending the packet to another router. Remote networks are added to the routing table using either a dynamic routing protocol or by configuring static routes. Static routes are routes to networks that a network administrator manually configured.So R should have static route for the 192.168.1.128.
Q45. – (Topic 2)
Refer to the exhibit.
When running EIGRP, what is required for RouterA to exchange routing updates with RouterC?
A. AS numbers must be changed to match on all the routers
B. Loopback interfaces must be configured so a DR is elected
C. The no auto-summary command is needed on Router A and Router C
D. Router B needs to have two network statements, one for each connected network
Answer: A Explanation:
Here we required same autonomous system between router A,B,C.Routing updated always exchange between in same EIGRP EIGRP autonomous system.you can configure more than one EIGRP autonomous system on the same router. This is typically done at a redistribution point where two EIGRP autonomous systems are interconnected. Individual router interfaces should only be included within a single EIGRP autonomous system. Cisco does not recommend running multiple EIGRP autonomous systems on the same set of interfaces on the router. If multiple EIGRP autonomous systems are used with multiple points of mutual redistribution, it can cause discrepancies in the EIGRP topology table if correct filtering is not performed at the redistribution points. If possible, Cisco recommends you configure only one EIGRP autonomous system in any single autonomous system. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080093f07.shtml
Q46. – (Topic 1)
Refer to the exhibit.
Which two statements are true about interVLAN routing in the topology that is shown in the exhibit? (Choose two.)
A. Host E and host F use the same IP gateway address.
B. Router1 and Switch2 should be connected via a crossover cable.
C. Router1 will not play a role in communications between host A and host D.
D. The FastEthernet 0/0 interface on Router1 must be configured with subinterfaces.
E. Router1 needs more LAN interfaces to accommodate the VLANs that are shown in the exhibit.
F. The FastEthernet 0/0 interface on Router1 and the FastEthernet 0/1 interface on Switch2 trunk ports must be configured using the same encapsulation type.
Q47. – (Topic 1)
Which port state is introduced by Rapid-PVST?
Spanning Tree from PVST+ to Rapid-PVST Migration Configuration Example Reference 1: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps708/products_configuration_example 09186a00807b0670.shtml
Reference 2: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094cf a.shtml
PVST+ is based on IEEE802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). But PVST+ has only 3 port states (discarding, learning and forwarding) while STP has 5 port states (blocking, listening, learning, forwarding and disabled). So discarding is a new port state in PVST+.
802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) has a drawback of slow convergence. Cisco
Catalyst switches support three types of STPs, which are PVST+, rapid-PVST+ and MST.
PVST+ is based on IEEE802.1D standard and includes Cisco proprietary extensions such
as BackboneFast, UplinkFast, and PortFast. Rapid-PVST+ is based on IEEE 802.1w
standard and has a faster convergence than 802.1D. RSTP (IEEE 802.1w) natively
includes most of the Cisco proprietary enhancements to the 802.1D Spanning Tree, such
as BackboneFast and UplinkFast. Rapid-PVST+ has these unique features:
Uses Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) version 2 which is backward compatible with the
802.1D STP, which uses BPDU version 0.
All the switches generate BPDUs and send out on all the ports every 2 seconds, whereas
in 802.1D STP only the root bridge sends the configuration BPDUs.
Port RolesâRoot port, designated port, alternate port and backup port.
Port StatesâDiscarding, Learning, and Forwarding.
Port TypesâEdge Port (PortFast), Point-to-Point and Shared port.
Rapid-PVST uses RSTP to provide faster convergence. When any RSTP port receives
legacy 802.1D BPDU, it falls back to legacy STP and the inherent fast convergence
benefits of 802.1w are lost when it interacts with legacy bridges.
Q48. – (Topic 3)
Which protocol is an open standard protocol framework that is commonly used in VPNs, to provide secure end-to-end communications?
Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a technology protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet of a communication session. IPsec also includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of the session and negotiation of cryptographic keys to be used during the session.
Q49. – (Topic 2)
What are two benefits of using a single OSPF area network design? (Choose two.)
A. It is less CPU intensive for routers in the single area.
B. It reduces the types of LSAs that are generated.
C. It removes the need for virtual links.
D. It increases LSA response times.
E. It reduces the number of required OSPF neighbor adjacencies.
OSPF uses a LSDB (link state database) and fills this with LSAs (link state advertisement). The link types are as follows:
LSA Type 1:. Router LSA
LSA Type 2:.. . . . . . . . Network LSA
LSA Type 3:. Summary LSA
LSA Type 4:. Summary ASBR LSA
LSA Type 5:. Autonomous system external LSA
LSA Type 6:. Multicast OSPF LSA
LSA Type 7:. Not-so-stubby area LSA
LSA Type 8:. External attribute LSA for BGP
If all routers are in the same area, then many of these LSA types (Summary ASBR LSA, external LSA, etc) will not be used and will not be generated by any router.
All areas in an Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) autonomous system must be physically connected to the backbone area (Area 0). In some cases, where this is not possible, you can use a virtual link to connect to the backbone through a non-backbone area. You can also use virtual links to connect two parts of a partitioned backbone through a non-backbone area. The area through which you configure the virtual link, known as a transit area, must have full routing information. The transit area cannot be a stub area. Virtual links are not ideal and should really only be used for temporary network solutions or migrations. However, if all locations are in a single OSPF area this is not needed.
Q50. – (Topic 2)
Refer to the exhibit.
If the router Cisco returns the given output and has not had its router ID set manually, what value will OSPF use as its router ID?
If a router-id is not configured manually in the OSPF routing process the router will automatically configure a router-id determined from the highest IP address of a logical interface (loopback interface) or the highest IP address of an active interface. If more than one loopback interfaces are configured, the router will compare the IP addresses of each of the interfaces and choose the highest IP address from the loopbacks.