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You have a directory /local. You want to make available that directory to all the members of and But directory should available in read and write to all the members of domain and read only to domain.

Answer and Explanation:

1. vi /etc/exports

/local *,sync),sync)

Check the SELinux Context, should be like this:

-rw-r–r– root root system_u:object_r:exports_t /etc/exports

Use the restorecon -R /etc command to restore the selinux context of the file.

2. service nfs start | restart

3. service portmap start | restart

4. chkconfig nfs on

5. chkconfig portmap on

In Linux to share the data we use the /etc/exports file. Pattern is:

Path client(permission)

Shared Directory Path, Client can be single host or domain name or ip address. Permission should specify without space with client lists in parentheses. NFS is RPC service so portmapper service should restart after starting the nfs service. We can specify multiple clients' list separating by space with different shared option.


Create the group named training

Answer and Explanation:

1. groupadd training

To create a group we use the groupadd command.

Verify from: cat /etc/group whether group added or not?


One New Kernel is released named kernel-hugemem. Kernel is available on under pub directory for anonymous. Install the Kernel and make previous new kernel is default to boot System.

Answer and Explanation:

1. rpm -ivh*

2. vi /etc/grub.conf

Set the default to new kernel


Example of /etc/grub.conf





title Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES (2.6.9-5.ELhugemem)

root (hd0,0)

kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.9-5.ELhugemem ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet

initrd /initrd-2.6.9-5.ELhugemem.img

title Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES (2.6.9-5.EL)

root (hd0,0)

kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.9-5.EL ro root=LABEL=/1 rhgb quiet

initrd /initrd-2.6.9-5.EL.img

rpm command is used to install, update and remove the rpm package. -ivh option is install,

verbose, and display the hash mark.


Configure to allow the pop3 and imap connection from your domain

and domain.

Answer and Explanation:

1. vi /etc/hosts.deny

dovecot:ALL EXCEPT,

We can secure the services using tcp_wrappers. There are main two files, /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny.

There will be three stage access checking

– Is access explicitly permitted? Means permitted from /etc/hosts.allow?

– Otherwise, Is access explicitly denied? Means denied from /etc/hosts.deny?

– Otherwise, by default permit access if neither condition matched.

To deny the services we can configure /etc/hosts.deny file using ALL and EXCEPT operation.

Pattern of /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny file is:


In Client list can be either domain name or IP address.


Create the user named jane and john.

Answer and Explanation:

1. useradd jane

2. useradd john

useradd command is used to create the user. All user's information stores in /etc/passwd and user;s shadow password stores in /etc/shadow.


If root sends the mail to jane, mail should be send to /var/spool/mail/jane.

Answer and Explanation:

By default all mails to user will send to user's spool directory. Nothing to do.


You have DHCP server, which assigns the IP, gateway and DNS server ip to Clients. There are two DNS servers having MAC address (00:50:FC:98:8D:00, 00:50:FC:98:8C:00), in your LAN, But they always required fixed IP address (, Configure the DHCP server to assign the fixed IP address to DNS server.

Answer and Explanation:

1. vi /etc/dhcpd.conf

ddns-update-style none;

option routers;

option domain-name "";

option domain-name-servers;

default-lease-time 21600;

max-lease-time 43200;

subnet netmask



host dns1 {

hardware ethernet 00:50:FC:98:8D:00;



host dns2 {

hardware ethernet 00:50:FC:98:8C:00;




/etc/dhcpd.conf file is used to configure the DHCP. Some global options i.e Gateway,

domainname, DNS server specified using option keyword. To assign as static ip from dhcp server,

required the mac address of interface.

2. Check the SELinux Context, should be like this:

-rw-r–r– root root system_u:object_r:dhcp_etc_t /etc/dhcpd.conf

3. Use the restorecon -R /etc command to restore the selinux context of the file.

4. service dhcpd start | restart


Create the directory /storage and group owner should be the sysusers group.

Answer and Explanation:

1. chgrp sysusers /storage

2. Verify using ls -ld /storage command. You should get like

drwxr-x— 2 root sysusers 4096 Mar 16 17:59 /storage

chgrp command is used to change the group ownership of particular files or directory.

Another way you can use the chown command.

chown root:sysusers /storage


Some users home directory is shared from your system. Using showmount -e localhost command, the shared directory is not shown. Make access the shared users home directory.

Answer and Explanation:

1. Verify the File whether Shared or not ? : cat /etc/exports

2. Start the nfs service: service nfs start

3. Start the portmap service: service portmap start

4. Make automatically start the nfs service on next reboot: chkconfig nfs on

5. Make automatically start the portmap service on next reboot: chkconfig portmap on

6. Verify either sharing or not: showmount -e localhost

7. Check that default firewall is running on system ? if running flush the iptables using iptables –F and stop the iptables service.


Your System is going to use as a Router for two networks. One Network is and Another Network is Both network's IP address has assigned. How will you forward the packets from one network to another network?

Answer and Explanation:

1. echo "1" >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

2. vi /etc/sysctl.conf

net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1

If you want to use the Linux System as a Router to make communication between different networks, you need enable the IP forwarding. To enable on running session just set value 1 to /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward. As well as automatically turn on the IP forwarding features on next boot set on /etc/sysctl.conf file.

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