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Q61. – (Topic 1)
Which statements are true regarding ICMP packets? (Choose two.)
A. They acknowledge receipt of TCP segments.
B. They guarantee datagram delivery.
C. TRACERT uses ICMP packets.
D. They are encapsulated within IP datagrams.
E. They are encapsulated within UDP datagrams.
Ping may be used to find out whether the local machines are connected to the network or whether a remote site is reachable. This tool is a common network tool for determining the network connectivity, which uses ICMP protocol instead of TCP/IP and UDP/IP. This protocol is usually associated with the network management tools, which provide network information to network administrators, such as ping and traceroute (the later also uses the UDP/IP protocol). ICMP is quite different from the TCP/IP and UDP/IP protocols. No source and destination ports are included in its packets. Therefore, usual packet-filtering rules for TCP/IP and UDP/IP are not applicable. Fortunately, a special "signature" known as the packetâs Message type is included for denoting the purposes of the ICMP packet. Most commonly used message types are namely, 0, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11, and 12 which represent echo reply, destination unreachable, source quench, redirect, echo request, time exceeded, and parameter problem respectively. In the ping service, after receiving the ICMP "echo request" packet from the source location, the destination
Q62. – (Topic 3)
Identify the four valid IPv6 addresses. (Choose four.)
Q63. – (Topic 3)
OSPF is configured using default classful addressing. With all routers and interfaces operational, how many networks will be in the routing table of R1 that are indicated to be learned by OSPF?
Although OSPF is configured using default classful addressing but OSPF is a link-state routing protocol so it will always send the subnet mask of each network in their advertised routes. Therefore R1 will learn the the complete subnets. Four networks list below will be in the routing table of R1:+ 172.16.2.64/30+ 172.16.2.228/30+ 172.16.2.232/30+ 172.16.3.0/24 Note: Other networks will be learned as âDirectly connectedâ networks (marked with letter âCâ)
Q64. – (Topic 3)
OSPF routing uses the concept of areas. What are the characteristics of OSPF areas? (Choose Three.)
A. Each OSPF area requires a loopback interface to be configured.
B. Areas may be assigned any number from 0 to 65535.
C. Area 0 is called the backbone area.
D. Hierarchical OSPF networks do not require multiple areas.
E. Multiple OSPF areas must connect to area 0.
F. Single area OSPF networks must be configured in area 1.
Definition of OSPF areas: An OSPF network may be structured, or subdivided, into routing areas to simplify administration and optimize traffic and resource utilization. Areas are identified by 32-bit numbers, expressed either simply in decimal, or often in octet-based dot-decimal notation, familiar from IPv4 address notation.
See discussion following Cisco Learning discussion.
Q65. – (Topic 7)
Which technology supports the stateless assignment of IPv6 addresses?
Explanation: DHCPv6 Technology Overview IPv6 Internet Address Assignment Overview
IPv6 has been developed with Internet Address assignment dynamics in mind. Being aware that IPv6 Internet addresses are 128 bits in length and written in hexadecimals makes automation of address-assignment an important aspect within network design. These attributes make it inconvenient for a user to manually assign IPv6 addresses, as the format is not naturally intuitive to the human eye. To facilitate address assignment with little or no human intervention, several methods and technologies have been developed to automate the process of address and configuration parameter assignment to IPv6 hosts. The various IPv6 address assignment methods are as follows:
Manual Assignment An IPv6 address can be statically configured by a human operator. However, manual assignment is quite open to errors and operational overhead due to the 128 bit length and hexadecimal attributes of the addresses, although for router interfaces and static network elements and resources this can be an appropriate solution.
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (RFC2462) Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) is one of the most convenient methods to assign Internet addresses to IPv6 nodes. This method does not require any human intervention at all from an IPv6 user. If one wants to use IPv6 SLAAC on an IPv6 node, it is important that this IPv6 node is connected to a network with at least one IPv6 router connected. This router is configured by the network administrator and sends out Router Advertisement announcements onto the link. These announcements can allow the on-link connected IPv6 nodes to configure themselves with IPv6 address and routing parameters, as specified in RFC2462, without further human intervention.
Stateful DHCPv6 The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) has been standardized by the IETF through RFC3315. DHCPv6 enables DHCP servers to pass configuration parameters,
such as IPv6 network addresses, to IPv6 nodes. It offers the capability of automatic allocation of reusable network addresses and additional configuration flexibility. This protocol is a stateful counterpart to "IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration" (RFC 2462), and can be used separately, or in addition to the stateless autoconfiguration to obtain configuration parameters.
DHCPv6-PD DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation (DHCPv6-PD) is an extension to DHCPv6, and is specified in RFC3633. Classical DHCPv6 is typically focused upon parameter assignment from a DHCPv6 server to an IPv6 host running a DHCPv6 protocol stack. A practical example would be the stateful address assignment of "2001:db8::1" from a DHCPv6 server to a DHCPv6 client. DHCPv6-PD however is aimed at assigning complete subnets and other network and interface parameters from a DHCPv6-PD server to a DHCPv6-PD client. This means that instead of a single address assignment, DHCPv6-PD will assign a set of IPv6 "subnets". An example could be the assignment of "2001:db8::/60" from a DHCPv6-PD server to a DHCPv6-PD client. This will allow the DHCPv6-PD client (often a CPE device) to segment the received address IPv6 address space, and assign it dynamically to its IPv6 enabled.interfaces.
Stateless DHCPv6 Stateless DHCPv6 is a combination of "stateless Address Autoconfiguration" and "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6" and is specified by RFC3736. When using stateless-DHCPv6, a device will use Stateless Address Auto-Configuration (SLAAC) to assign one or more IPv6 addresses to an interface, while it utilizes DHCPv6 to receive "additional parameters" which may not be available through SLAAC. For example, additional parameters could include information such as DNS or NTP server addresses, and are provided in a stateless manner by DHCPv6. Using stateless DHCPv6 means that the DHCPv6 server does not need to keep track of any state of assigned IPv6 addresses, and there is no need for state refreshment as result. On network media supporting a large number of hosts associated to a single DHCPv6 server, this could mean a significant reduction in DHCPv6 messages due to the reduced need for address state refreshments. From Cisco IOS 12.4(15)T onwards the client can also receive timing information, in addition to the "additional parameters" through DHCPv6. This timing information provides an indication to a host when it should refresh its DHCPv6 configuration data. This behavior (RFC4242) is particularly useful in unstable environments where changes are likely to occur.
Q66. – (Topic 3)
Which parameter or parameters are used to calculate OSPF cost in Cisco routers?
B. Bandwidth and Delay
C. Bandwidth, Delay, and MTU
D. Bandwidth, MTU, Reliability, Delay, and Load
The well-known formula to calculate OSPF cost is Cost = 108/ Bandwidth
Q67. – (Topic 7)
Which statement about the inside interface configuration in a NAT deployment is true?
A. It is defined globally
B. It identifies the location of source addresses for outgoing packets to be translated using access or route maps.
C. It must be configured if static NAT is used
D. It identifies the public IP address that traffic will use to reach the internet.
This module describes how to configure Network Address Translation (NAT) for IP address conservation and how to configure inside and outside source addresses. This module also provides information about the benefits of configuring NAT for IP address conservation. NAT enables private IP internetworks that use nonregistered IP addresses to connect to the Internet. NAT operates on a device, usually connecting two networks, and translates the private (not globally unique) addresses in the internal network into legal addresses before packets are forwarded onto another network. NAT can be configured to advertise to the outside world only one address for the entire network. This ability provides additional security by effectively hiding the entire internal network behind that one address. NAT is also used at the enterprise edge to allow internal users access to the Internet and to allow Internet access to internal devices such as mail servers.
Q68. – (Topic 1)
Refer to the exhibit.
A network device needs to be installed in the place of the icon labeled Network Device to accommodate a leased line attachment to the Internet. Which network device and interface configuration meets the minimum requirements for this installation?
A. a router with two Ethernet interfaces
B. a switch with two Ethernet interfaces
C. a router with one Ethernet and one serial interface
D. a switch with one Ethernet and one serial interface
E. a router with one Ethernet and one modem interface
Only a router can terminate a leased line attachment access circuit, and only a router can connect two different IP networks. Here, we will need a router with two interfaces, one serial connection for the line attachment and one Ethernet interface to connect to the switch on the LAN.
Q69. – (Topic 1)
Which protocol uses a connection-oriented service to deliver files between end systems?
TCP is an example of a connection-oriented protocol. It requires a logical connection to be established between the two processes before data is exchanged. The connection must be maintained during the entire time that communication is taking place, then released afterwards. The process is much like a telephone call, where a virtual circuit is established–the caller must know the person's telephone number and the phone must be answered–before the message can be delivered. TCP/IP is also a connection-oriented transport with orderly release. With orderly release, any data remaining in the buffer is sent before the connection is terminated. The release is accomplished in a three-way handshake between client and server processes. The connection-oriented protocols in the OSI protocol suite, on the other hand, do not support orderly release. Applications perform any handshake necessary for ensuring orderly release. Examples of services that use connection-oriented transport services are telnet, rlogin, and ftp.
Q70. CORRECT TEXT – (Topic 6)
This topology contains 3 routers and 1 switch. Complete the topology.
Drag the appropriate device icons to the labeled Device Drag the appropriate connections to the locations labeled Connections. Drag the appropriate IP addresses to the locations labeled IP address
(Hint: use the given host addresses and Main router information) To remove a device or connection, drag it away from the topology.
Use information gathered from the Main router to complete the configuration of any additional routers.
No passwords are required to access the Main router. The config terminal command has been disabled for the HQ router. The router does not require any configuration.
Configure each additional router with the following:
Configure the interfaces with the correct IP address and enable the interfaces.
Set the password to allow console access to consolepw
Set the password to allow telnet access to telnetpw
Set the password to allow privilege mode access to privpw
Not E: Because routes are not being added to the configurations, you will not be able to ping through the internetwork.
All devices have cable autosensing capabilities disabled.
All hosts are PCâs
Answer: Specify appropriate devices and drag them on the "Device" boxes For the device at the bottom-right box, we notice that it has 2 interfaces Fa0/2 and Fa0/4; moreover the link connects the PC on the right with the device on the bottom-right is a straight-through link -> it is a switch The question stated that this topology contains 3 routers and 1 switch -> two other devices are routers Place them on appropriate locations as following: (Host D and host E will be automatically added after placing two routers. Click on them to access neighboring routers) Specify appropriate connections between these devices:
The router on the left is connected with the Main router through FastEthernet interfaces: use a crossover cable
The router on the right is connected with the Main router through Serial interfaces: use a
The router on the right and the Switch: use a straight-through cable
The router on the left and the computer: use a crossover cable (To remember which type of cable you should use, follow these tips:
To connect two serial interfaces of 2 routers we use serial cable
To specify when we use crossover cable or straight-through cable, we should remember: Group 1: Router, Host, Server Group 2: Hub, Switch One device in group 1 + One device in group 2: use straight-through cable Two devices in the same group: use crossover cable For example, we use straight-through cable to connect switch to router, switch to host, hub to host, hub to server… and we use crossover cable to connect switch to switch, switch to hub, router to router, host to host.) Assign appropriate IP addresses for interfaces: From Main router, use show running-config command.
(Notice that you may see different IP addresses in the real CCNA exam, the ones shown above are just used for demonstration)
From the output we learned that the ip address of Fa0/0 interface of the Main router is
192.168.152.177/28. This address belongs to a subnetwork which has:
Increment: 16 (/28 = 255.255.255.240 or 1111 1111.1111 1111.1111 1111.1111 0000)
Network address: 192.168.152.176 (because 176 = 16 * 11 and 176 < 177)
Broadcast address: 192.168.152.191 (because 191 = 176 + 16 – 1)
And we can pick up an ip address from the list that belongs to this subnetwork:
192.168.152.190 and assign it to the Fa0/0 interface the router on the left Use the same method for interface Serial0/0 with an ip address of 192.168.152.161 Increment: 16 Network address: 192.168.152.160 (because 160 = 16 * 10 and 160 < 161) Broadcast address: 192.168.152.175 (because 176 = 160 + 16 – 1) -> and we choose 192.168.152.174 for Serial0/0 interface of the router on the right Interface Fa0/1 of the router on the left IP (of the computer on the left) : 192.168.152.129/28 Increment: 16 Network address: 192.168.152.128 (because 128 = 16 * 8 and 128 < 129) Broadcast address: 192.168.152.143 (because 143 = 128 + 16 – 1) -> we choose 192.168.152.142 from the list Interface Fa0/0 of the router on the right IP (of the computer on the left) : 192.168.152.225/28 Increment: 16 Network address: 192.168.152.224 (because 224 = 16 * 14 and 224 < 225) Broadcast address: 192.168.152.239 (because 239 = 224 + 16 – 1) -> we choose 192.168.152.238 from the list Let's have a look at the picture below to summarize Configure two routers on the left and right with these commands: Router1 = router on the left Assign appropriate IP addresses to Fa0/0 & Fa0/1 interfaces: Router1>enable Router1#configure terminal Router1(config)#interface fa0/0 Router1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.152.190 255.255.255.240 Router1(config-if)#no shutdown Router1(config-if)#interface fa0/1 Router1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.152.142 255.255.255.240 Router1(config-if)#no shutdown Set passwords (configure on two routers)
Console password: Router1(config-if)#exit Router1(config)#line console 0
Router1(config-line)#password consolepw Router1(config-line)#login Router1(config-line)#exit
Telnet password: Router1(config)#line vty 0 4 Router1(config-line)#password telnetpw Router1(config-line)#login Router1(config-line)#exit
Privilege mode password: Router1(config)#enable password privpw Save the configuration: Router1(config)#exit Router1#copy running-config startup-config Configure IP addresses of Router2 (router on the right) Router2>enable Router2#configure terminal Router2(config)#interface fa0/0 Router2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.152.238 255.255.255.240 Router2(config-if)#no shutdown Router2(config-if)#interface serial0/0 Router2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.152.174 255.255.255.240 Router2(config-if)#no shutdown Then set the console, telnet and privilege mode passwords for Router2 as we did for Router1, remember to save the configuration when you finished.