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Q51. – (Topic 2)
Which two are advantages of static routing when compared to dynamic routing? (Choose two.)
A. Configuration complexity decreases as network size increases.
B. Security increases because only the network administrator may change the routing table.
C. Route summarization is computed automatically by the router.
D. Routing tables adapt automatically to topology changes.
E. An efficient algorithm is used to build routing tables, using automatic updates.
F. Routing updates are automatically sent to neighbors.
G. Routing traffic load is reduced when used in stub network links.
When reading (or being lectured about) all the glorious details of dynamic routing protocols, it's hard not to come away with the impression that dynamic routing is always better than static routing. It's important to keep in mind that the primary duty of a dynamic routing protocol is to automatically detect and adapt to topological changes in the internetwork. The price of this "automation" is paid in bandwidth, security, and maybe queue space, in memory, and in processing time. A frequent objection to static routing is that it is hard to administer. This criticism may be true of medium to large topologies with many alternative routes, but it is certainly not true of small internetworks with few or no alternative routes. References: http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=24090&seqNum=6 http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=24090
Q52. – (Topic 2)
What are two enhancements that OSPFv3 supports over OSPFv2? (Choose two.)
A. It requires the use of ARP.
B. It can support multiple IPv6 subnets on a single link.
C. It supports up to 2 instances of OSPFv3 over a common link.
D. It routes over links rather than over networks.
Answer: B,D Explanation:
Here is a list of the differences between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3:
They use different address families (OSPFv2 is for IPv4-only, OSPFv3 can be used for IPv6-only or both protocols OSPFv3 introduces new LSA types OSPFv3 has different packet format OSPFv3 uses different flooding scope bits (U/S2/S1) OSPFv3 adjacencies are formed over link-local IPv6 communications OSPFv3 runs per-link rather than per-subnet OSPFv3 supports multiple instances on a single link, Interfaces can have multiple IPv6 addresses OSPFv3 uses multicast addresses FF02::5 (all OSPF routers), FF02::6 (all OSPF DRs) OSPFv3 Neighbor Authentication done with IPsec (AH) OSPFv2 Router ID (RID) must be manually configured, still a 32-bit number
Q53. – (Topic 1)
Refer to the exhibit.
At the end of an RSTP election process, which access layer switch port will assume the discarding role?
A. Switch3, port fa0/1
B. Switch3, port fa0/12
C. Switch4, port fa0/11
D. Switch4, port fa0/2
E. Switch3, port Gi0/1
F. Switch3, port Gi0/2
In this question, we only care about the Access Layer switches (Switch3 & 4). Switch 3 has a lower bridge ID than Switch 4 (because the MAC of Switch3 is smaller than that of Switch4) so both ports of Switch3 will be in forwarding state. The alternative port will surely belong to Switch4. Switch4 will need to block one of its ports to avoid a bridging loop between the two switches. But how does Switch4 select its blocked port? Well, the answer is based on the BPDUs it receives from Switch3. A BPDU is superior than another if it has:
1. A lower Root Bridge ID2. A lower path cost to the Root3. A lower Sending Bridge ID4. A lower Sending Port ID
These four parameters are examined in order. In this specific case, all the BPDUs sent by Switch3 have the same Root Bridge ID, the same path cost to the Root and the same Sending Bridge ID. The only parameter left to select the best one is the Sending Port ID (Port ID = port priority + port index). In this case the port priorities are equal because they use the default value, so Switch4 will compare port index values, which are unique to each port on the switch, and because Fa0/12 is inferior to Fa0/1, Switch4 will select the port connected with Fa0/1 (of Switch3) as its root port and block the other port -> Port fa0/11 of Switch4 will be blocked (discarding role)
Q54. – (Topic 3)
Which two options are valid WAN connectivity methods? (Choose two.)
On each WAN connection, data is encapsulated into frames before itcrosses the WAN link. The following are typical WAN protocols:1. High-level Data Link Control (HDLC): The Cisco default encapsulation type onpoint-to-point connections, dedicated links, and circuit-switches connections.2. PPP: Provides router-to-router and host-to-network connections over synchronous andasynchronous circuits. PPP was designed to work with several network layer protocols,including IP.3. Frame-relay: A successor to X.25. This protocol is an industry-standard, switchesdata-link layer protocol that handles multiple virtual circuits
Q55. – (Topic 3)
What command is used to verify the DLCI destination address in a Frame Relay static configuration?
A. show frame-relay pvc
B. show frame-relay lmi
C. show frame-relay map
D. show frame relay end-to-end
Cisco Frame Relay Configurations http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=170741&seqNum=9 show frame-relay map The show frame-relay map privileged EXEC mode command shows the contents of the next hop protocol address to DLCI mapping table on the router. The table contains both dynamic mapped and static mapped entries. The below example shows a sample output of the show frame-relay map command. Router#show frame-relay map Serial1/2 (up): ip 172.16.1.4 dlci 401(0x191,0x6410), dynamic, broadcast,, status defined, active Serial1/2 (up): ip 172.16.1.5 dlci 501(0x1F5,0x7C50), dynamic, broadcast,, status defined, active Serial1/2 (up): ip 172.16.1.2 dlci 301(0x12D,0x48D0), dynamic, broadcast,, status defined, active
Q56. – (Topic 1)
Which protocol provides a method of sharing VLAN configuration information between two Cisco switches?
Understanding VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP) http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk689/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094c52. shtml
Introduction VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP) reduces administration in a switched network. When you configure a new VLAN on one VTP server, the VLAN is distributed through all switches in the domain. This reduces the need to configure the same VLAN everywhere. VTP is a Cisco-proprietary protocol that is available on most of the Cisco Catalyst series products.
Q57. – (Topic 2)
Which parameter would you tune to affect the selection of a static route as a backup, when a dynamic protocol is also being used?
A. hop count
B. administrative distance
C. link bandwidth
D. link delay
E. link cost
What Is Administrative Distance?
Administrative distance is the feature that routers use in order to select the best path. Administrative distance defines the reliability of a routing protocol. Each routing protocol is prioritized in order of most to least reliable (believable) with the help of an administrative distance value. Lowest Administrative distance will be chosen first.
Q58. – (Topic 2)
What can be done to secure the virtual terminal interfaces on a router? (Choose two.)
A. Administratively shut down the interface.
B. Physically secure the interface.
C. Create an access list and apply it to the virtual terminal interfaces with the access-group command.
D. Configure a virtual terminal password and login process.
E. Enter an access list and apply it to the virtual terminal interfaces using the access-class command.
It is a waste to administratively shut down the interface. Moreover, someone can still access the virtual terminal interfaces via other interfaces -> A is not correct.
We can not physically secure a virtual interface because it is âvirtualâ -> B is not correct.
To apply an access list to a virtual terminal interface we must use the âaccess-classâ command. The âaccess-groupâ command is only used to apply an access list to a physical interface -> C is not correct; E is correct.
The most simple way to secure the virtual terminal interface is to configure a username & password to prevent unauthorized login -> D is correct.
Q59. – (Topic 2)
A router is running three routing processes: RIP, OSPF, and EIGRP, each configured with default characteristics. Each process learns a route to the same remote network.
If there are no static routes to the destination and none of the routes were redistributed, which route will be placed in the IP routing table?
A. the route learned through EIGRP
B. the route learned through OSPF
C. the route learned through RIP
D. the route with the lowest metric
E. all three routes with the router load balancing
Administrative distance is the feature that routers use in order to select the best path.
Administrative distance defines the reliability of a routing protocol. Each routing protocol is prioritized in order of most to least reliable (believable) with the help of an administrative distance value. Lowest Administrative distance will be chosen first.
Q60. – (Topic 1)
Which two states are the port states when RSTP has converged? (Choose two.)
Understanding Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (802.1w)
Port States There are only three port states left in RSTP that correspond to the three possible operational states. The 802.1D disabled, blocking, and listening states are merged into a unique 802.1w discarding state. RSTP only has 3 port states which are discarding, learning and forwarding. When RSTP has converged there are only 2 port states left: discarding and forwarding.