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Q41. To configure SNMPv3 implementation, a network engineer is using the AuthNoPriv security level. What effect does this action have on the SNMP messages?
A. They become unauthenticated and unencrypted.
B. They become authenticated and unencrypted.
C. They become authenticated and encrypted.
D. They become unauthenticated and encrypted.
Q42. Which PPP authentication method sends authentication information in clear text?
A. MS CHAP
PAP authentication involves a two-way handshake where the username and password are
sent across the link in clear text; hence, PAP authentication does not provide any protection against
playback and line sniffing. CHAP authentication, on the other hand, periodically verifies the identity of the
remote node using a three-way handshake. After the PPP link is established, the host sends a "challenge"
message to the remote node. The remote node responds with a value calculated using a one-way hash
function. The host checks the response against its own calculation of the expected hash value. If the
values match, the authentication is acknowledged; otherwise, the connection is terminated. Reference:
Q43. A network engineer is investigating the cause of a service disruption on a network segment and executes the debug condition interface fastethernet f0/0 command. In which situation is the debugging output generated?
A. when packets on the interface are received and the interface is operational
B. when packets on the interface are received and logging buffered is enabled
C. when packets on the interface are received and forwarded to a configured syslog server
D. when packets on the interface are received and the interface is shut down
Q44. A router receives a routing advertisement for the same prefix and subnet from four different routing protocols. Which advertisement is installed in the routing table?
Q45. Refer to the following output:
Router#show ip nhrp detail
10.1.1.2/8 via 10.2.1.2, Tunnel1 created 00:00:12, expire 01:59:47
TypE. dynamic, Flags: authoritative unique nat registered used
NBMA address: 10.12.1.2
What does the authoritative flag mean in regards to the NHRP information?
A. It was obtained directly from the next-hop server.
B. Data packets are process switches for this mapping entry.
C. NHRP mapping is for networks that are local to this router.
D. The mapping entry was created in response to an NHRP registration request.
E. The NHRP mapping entry cannot be overwritten.
Show NHRP: Examples
The following is sample output from the show ip nhrp command:
Router# show ip nhrp
10.0.0.2 255.255.255.255, tunnel 100 created 0:00:43 expire 1:59:16 Type: dynamic Flags: authoritative
NBMA address: 10.1111.1111.1111.1111.1111.1111.1111.1111.1111.11 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.255,
Tunnel0 created 0:10:03 expire 1:49:56 Type: static Flags: authoritative NBMA address: 10.1.1.2 The
fields in the sample display are as follows:
The IP address and its network mask in the IP-to-NBMA address cache. The mask is always
255.255.255.255 because Cisco does not support aggregation of NBMA information through NHRP.
The interface type and number and how long ago it was created (hours:minutes:seconds).
The time in which the positive and negative authoritative NBMA address will expire
(hours:minutes:seconds). This value is based on the ip nhrp holdtime
Type of interface:
dynamic–NBMA address was obtained from the NHRP Request packet.
static–NBMA address was statically configured.
authoritative–Indicates that the NHRP information was obtained from the Next Hop Server or router that
maintains the NBMA-to-IP address mapping for a particular destination. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/
Q46. An organization decides to implement NetFlow on its network to monitor the fluctuation of traffic that is disrupting core services. After reviewing the output of NetFlow, the network engineer is unable to see OUT traffic on the interfaces. What can you determine based on this information?
A. Cisco Express Forwarding has not been configured globally.
B. NetFlow output has been filtered by default.
C. Flow Export version 9 is in use.
D. The command ip flow-capture fragment-offset has been enabled.
We came across a recent issue where a user setup a router for NetFlow export but was unable to see the
OUT traffic for the interfaces in NetFlow Analyzer. Every NetFlow configuration aspect was checked and
nothing incorrect was found. That is when we noticed the `no ip cef' command on the router. CEF was
enabled at the global level and within seconds, NetFlow Analyzer started showing OUT traffic for the
interfaces. This is why this topic is about Cisco Express Forwarding.
What is switching?
A Router must make decisions about where to forward the packets passing through. This decision-making
process is called "switching". Switching is what a router does when it makes the following decisions:
1.Whether to forward or not forward the packets after checking that the destination for the packet is
2.If the destination is reachable, what is the next hop of the router and which interface will the router use to
get to that destination.
What is CEF?
CEF is one of the available switching options for Cisco routers. Based on the routing table, CEF creates its
own table, called the Forwarding Information Base (FIB). The FIB is organized differently than the routing
table and CEF uses the FIB to decide which interface to send traffic from. CEF offers the following
1.Better performance than fast-switching (the default) and takes less CPU to perform the same task.
2.When enabled, allows for advanced features like NBAR
3.Overall, CEF can switch traffic faster than route-caching using fast-switching
How to enable CEF?
CEF is disabled by default on all routers except the 7xxx series routers. Enabling and Disabling CEF is
easy. To enable CEF, go into global configuration mode and
enter the CEF command.
Router# config t
Router(config)# ip cef
To disable CEF, simply use the `no' form of the command, ie. `no ip cef`.
Why CEF Needed when enabling NetFlow ?
CEF is a prerequisite to enable NetFlow on the router interfaces. CEF decides through which interface
traffic is exiting the router. Any NetFlow analyzer product will calculate the OUT traffic for an interface
based on the Destination Interface value present in the NetFlow packets exported from the router. If the
CEF is disabled on the router, the NetFlow packets exported from the router will have "Destination
interface" as "null" and this leads NetFlow Analyzer to show no OUT traffic for the interfaces. Without
enabling the CEF on the router, the NetFlow packets did not mark the destination interfaces and so
NetFlow Analyzer was not able to show the OUT traffic for the interfaces. Reference: https://
Q47. A router with an interface that is configured with ipv6 address autoconfig also has a link-local address assigned. Which message is required to obtain a global unicast address when a router is present?
A. DHCPv6 request
Autoconfiguration is performed on multicast-enabled links only and begins when a multicastenabled
interface is enabled (during system startup or manually). Nodes (both, hosts and routers) begin
the process by generating a link-local address for the interface. It is formed by appending the interface
identifier to well-known link-local prefix FE80 :: 0. The interface identifier replaces the right-most zeroes of
the link-local prefix. Before the link-local address can be assigned to the interface, the node performs the
Duplicate Address Detection mechanism to see if any other node is using the same link-local address on
the link. It does this by sending a Neighbor Solicitation message with target address as the "tentative"
address and destination address as the solicited-node multicast address corresponding to this tentative
address. If a node responds with a Neighbor Advertisement message with tentative address as the target
address, the address is a duplicate address and must not be used. Hence, manual configuration is
required. Once the node verifies that its tentative address is unique on the link, it assigns that link-local
address to the interface. At this stage, it has IP-connectivity to other neighbors on this link. The
autoconfiguration on the routers stop at this stage, further tasks are performed only by the hosts. The
routers will need manual configuration (or stateful configuration) to receive site-local or global addresses.
The next phase involves obtaining Router Advertisements from routers if any routers are present on the
link. If no routers are present, a stateful configuration is required. If routers are present, the Router
Advertisements notify what sort of configurations the hosts need to do and the hosts receive a global
unicast IPv6 address. Reference: https://sites.google.com/site/amitsciscozone/home/important-tips/ipv6/
Q48. A network administrator is troubleshooting a DMVPN setup between the hub and the spoke. Which action should the administrator take before troubleshooting the IPsec configuration?
A. Verify the GRE tunnels.
B. Verify ISAKMP.
C. Verify NHRP.
D. Verify crypto maps.
Q49. CORRECT TEXT
ROUTE.com is a small IT corporation that has an existing enterprise network that is running IPv6 0SPFv3. Currently OSPF is configured on all routers. However, R4's loopback address (FEC0:4:4) cannot be seen in R1's IPv6 routing table. You are tasked with identifying the cause of this fault and implementing the needed corrective actions that uses OPSF features and does not change the current area assignments. You will know that you have corrected the fault when R4's loopback address (FEC0:4:4) can be seen in RTs IPv6 routing table.
Special Note: To gain the maximum number of points you must remove all incorrect or unneeded configuration statements related to this issue.
Answer: Here is the solution below:
To troubleshoot the problem, first issue the show running-config on all of 4 routers. Pay more attention to the outputs of routers R2 and R3 The output of the "show running-config" command of R2:
The output of the "show running-config" command of R3:
We knew that all areas in an Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) autonomous system must be physically connected to the backbone area (Area 0). In some cases, where this is not possible, we can use a virtual link to connect to the backbone through a non-backbone area. The area through which you configure the virtual link is known as a transit area. In this case, the area 11 will become the transit area. Therefore, routers R2 and R3 must be configured with the area <area id> virtual-link <neighbor router-id>command. + Configure virtual link on R2 (from the first output above, we learned that the OSPF process ID of R2 is 1):
R2(config)#ipv6 router ospf 1
R2(config-rtr)#area 11 virtual-link 220.127.116.11
Save the configuration:
R2#copy running-config startup-config
(Notice that we have to use neighbor router-id 18.104.22.168, not R2's router-id 22.214.171.124) + Configure virtual link on R3 (from the second output above, we learned that the OSPF process ID of R3 is 1 and we have to disable the wrong configuration of "area 54 virtual-link 126.96.36.199"):
R3(config)#ipv6 router ospf 1
R3(config-rtr)#no area 54 virtual-link 188.8.131.52
R3(config-rtr)#area 11 virtual-link 184.108.40.206
Save the configuration:
R3#copy running-config startup-config
You should check the configuration of R4, too. Make sure to remove the incorrect configuration statements to get the full points.
R4(config)#ipv6 router ospf 1
R4(config-router)#no area 54 virtual-link 220.127.116.11
After finishing the configuration doesnât forget to ping between R1 and R4 to make sure they work.
Note. If you want to check the routing information, use the show ipv6 route command, not "show ip route".
Q50. Which Cisco VPN technology uses AAA to implement group policies and authorization and is also used for the XAUTH authentication method?
B. Cisco Easy VPN