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2017 Apr 312-50 Study Guide Questions:

Q51. In which location, SAM hash passwords are stored in Windows 7? 

A. c:\\windows\\system32\\config\\SAM 

B. c:\\winnt\\system32\\machine\\SAM 

C. c:\\windows\\etc\\drivers\\SAM 

D. c:\\windows\\config\\etc\\SAM 

Answer: A

Q52. You are the IT Manager of a large legal firm in California. Your firm represents many important clients whose names always must remain anonymous to the public. Your boss, Mr. Smith is always concerned about client information being leaked or revealed to the pres or public. You have just finished a complete security overhaul of your information system including an updated IPS, new firewall, email encryption and employee security awareness training. Unfortunately, many of your firm’s clients do not trust technology to completely secure their information, so couriers routinely have to travel back and forth to and from the office with sensitive information. 

Your boss has charged you with figuring out how to secure the information the couriers must transport. You propose that the data be transferred using burned CD’s or USB flash drives. You initially think of encrypting the files, but decide against that method for fear the encryption keys could eventually be broken. 

What software application could you use to hide the data on the CD’s and USB flash drives? 

A. Snow 

B. File Snuff 

C. File Sneaker 


Answer: A

Explanation: The Snow software developed by Matthew Kwan will insert extra spaces at the end of each line. Three bits are encoded in each line by adding between 0 and 7 spaces that are ignored by most display programs including web browsers. 

Q53. You find the following entries in your web log. Each shows attempted access to either root.exe or cmd.exe. What caused this? 

GET /scripts/root.exe?/c+dir GET /MSADC/root.exe?/c+dir GET /c/winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir GET /d/winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir GET /scripts/..%5c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir GET /_vti_bin/..%5c../..%5c../..%5c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir GET /_mem_bin/..%5c../..%5c../..%5c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir GET /msadc/..%5c../..%5c../..%5c/..xc1x1c../..xc1x1c../..xc1x1c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir GET /scripts/..xc1x1c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir GET /scripts/..xc0/../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir GET /scripts/..xc0xaf../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir GET /scripts/..xc1x9c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir GET /scripts/..%35c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir GET /scripts/..%35c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir GET /scripts/..%5c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir GET /scripts/..%2f../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir 

A. The Morris worm 

B. The PIF virus 

C. Trinoo 

D. Nimda 

E. Code Red 

F. Ping of Death 

Answer: D

Explanation: The Nimda worm modifies all web content files it finds. As a result, any user browsing web content on the system, whether via the file system or via a web server, may download a copy of the worm. Some browsers may automatically execute the downloaded copy, thereby, infecting the browsing system. The high scanning rate of the Nimda worm may also cause bandwidth denial-of-service conditions on networks with infected machines and allow intruders the ability to execute arbitrary commands within the Local System security context on machines running the unpatched versions of IIS. 

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Q54. When a normal TCP connection starts, a destination host receives a SYN (synchronize/start) packet from a source host and sends back a SYN/ACK (synchronize acknowledge). The destination host must then hear an ACK (acknowledge) of the SYN/ACK before the connection is established. This is referred to as the "TCP three-way handshake." While waiting for the ACK to the SYN ACK, a connection queue of finite size on the destination host keeps track of connections waiting to be completed. This queue typically empties quickly since the ACK is expected to arrive a few milliseconds after the SYN ACK. How would an attacker exploit this design by launching TCP SYN attack? 

A. Attacker generates TCP SYN packets with random destination addresses towards a victim host 

B. Attacker floods TCP SYN packets with random source addresses towards a victim host 

C. Attacker generates TCP ACK packets with random source addresses towards a victim host 

D. Attacker generates TCP RST packets with random source addresses towards a victim host 

Answer: B

Q55. Take a look at the following attack on a Web Server using obstructed URL: %70%61%73%73%77%64 

The request is made up of: 

-%2e%2e%2f%2e%2e%2f%2e%2f% = ../../../ 

-%65%74%63 = etc 

-%2f = / 

-%70%61%73%73%77%64 = passwd 

How would you protect information systems from these attacks? 

A. Configure Web Server to deny requests involving Unicode characters. 

B. Create rules in IDS to alert on strange Unicode requests. 

C. Use SSL authentication on Web Servers. 

D. Enable Active Scripts Detection at the firewall and routers. 

Answer: B

Explanation: This is a typical Unicode attack. By configuring your IDS to trigger on strange Unicode requests you can protect your web-server from this type of attacks. 

Q56. The SNMP Read-Only Community String is like a password. The string is sent along with each SNMP Get-Request and allows (or denies) access to a device. Most network vendors ship their equipment with a default password of "public". This is the so-called "default public community string". How would you keep intruders from getting sensitive information regarding the network devices using SNMP? (Select 2 answers) 

A. Enable SNMPv3 which encrypts username/password authentication 

B. Use your company name as the public community string replacing the default 'public' 

C. Enable IP filtering to limit access to SNMP device 

D. The default configuration provided by device vendors is highly secure and you don't need to change anything 

Answer: AC

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Q57. In order to attack a wireless network, you put up an access point and override the signal of the real access point. As users send authentication data, you are able to capture it. What kind of attack is this? 

A. WEP attack 

B. Drive by hacking 

C. Rogue access point attack 

D. Unauthorized access point attack 

Answer: C

Explanation: The definition of a Rogue access point is:1. A wireless access point (AP) installed by an employee without the consent of the IT department. Without the proper security configuration, users have exposed their company's network to the outside world.2. An access point (AP) set up by an attacker outside a facility with a wireless network. Also called an "evil twin," the rogue AP picks up beacons (signals that advertise its presence) from the company's legitimate AP and transmits identical beacons, which some client machines inside the building associate with. 

Q58. Attackers can potentially intercept and modify unsigned SMB packets, modify the traffic and forward it so that the server might perform undesirable actions. Alternatively, the attacker could pose as the server or client after a legitimate authentication and gain unauthorized access to data. Which of the following is NOT a means that can be used to minimize or protect against such an attack? 

A. Timestamps 

B. SMB Signing 

C. File permissions 

D. Sequence numbers monitoring 

Answer: ABD

Q59. Spears Technology, Inc is a software development company located in Los Angeles, California. They reported a breach in security, stating that its “security defenses has been breached and exploited for 2 weeks by hackers. “The hackers had accessed and downloaded 90,000 address containing customer credit cards and password. Spears Technology found this attack to be so to law enforcement officials to protect their intellectual property. 

How did this attack occur? The intruder entered through an employees home machine, which was connected to Spears Technology, Inc’s corporate VPN network. The application called BEAST Trojan was used in the attack to open a “Back Door” allowing the hackers undetected access. The security breach was discovered when customers complained about the usage of their credit cards without their knowledge. 

The hackers were traced back to Beijing China through e-mail address evidence. The credit card information was sent to that same e-mail address. The passwords allowed the hackers to access Spears Technology’s network from a remote location, posing as employees. The intent of the attacker was to steal the source code for their VOIP system and “hold it hostage” from Spears Technology, Inc exchange for ransom. 

The hackers had intended on selling the stolen VOIP software source code to competitors. 

How would you prevent such attacks from occurring in the future at Spears Technology? 

A. Disable VPN access to all your employees from home machines 

B. Allow VPN access but replace the standard authentication with biometric authentication 

C. Replace the VPN access with dial-up modem access to the company’s network 

D. Enable 25 character complex password policy for employees to access the VPN network. 

Answer: A

Explanation: As long as there is a way in for employees through all security measures you can’t be secure because you never know what computer the employees use to access recourses at their workplace. 

Q60. Bob has set up three web servers on Windows Server 2003 IIS 6.0. Bob has followed all the recommendations for securing the operating system and IIS. These servers are going to run numerous e-commerce websites that are projected to bring in thousands of dollars a day. Bob is still concerned about the security of this server because of the potential for financial loss. Bob has asked his company’s firewall administrator to set the firewall to inspect all incoming traffic on ports 80 and 443 to ensure that no malicious data is getting into the network. 

Why will this not be possible? 

A. Firewalls can’t inspect traffic coming through port 443 

B. Firewalls can only inspect outbound traffic 

C. Firewalls can’t inspect traffic coming through port 80 

D. Firewalls can’t inspect traffic at all, they can only block or allow certain ports 

Answer: D 

Explanation: In order to really inspect traffic and traffic patterns you need an IDS.